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deconstruction in a nutshell. Through deconstruction, Derrida aims to erase the boundary between binary oppositions—and to do so in such a way that the hierarchy implied by the oppositions is thrown into question. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. ISBN-13: 978-0198128960. Finally, the influence of deconstruction spread beyond the humanities and social sciences to the arts and architecture. Noté /5. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. Without oversimplifying or glossing over the challenges, Norris makes deconstruction more accessible to the reader. The information below is meant merely as a guide or introduction to modern literary theories and trends. But if you really want to set deconstruction to work, you've got to work to achieve that goal. Formalist critics, such as the New Critics, assume that a work of literature is a freestanding, self-contained object whose meaning can be found in the complex network of relations between its parts (allusions, images, rhythms, sounds, etc.). Deconstruction was both created and has been profoundly influenced by the French philosopher Jacques Derrida. Have you ever seen the scaffolding that goes up during the construction of a building? Similarly, deconstructionlooks at what makes a text whole and what holes are in between its piec… Though a deconstructive reading can reveal the incompatible possibilities generated by the text, it is impossible for the reader to settle on any permanent meanings. Though Deconstruction is primarily understood as a theory of TEXTUALITY and as a method for reading texts, it constitutes for many a radically new way of seeing and knowing the world. , 1844–1900, German philosopher, b. Röcken, Prussia. Still others regarded it as a nihilistic endorsement of radical epistemic relativism. (dē′kən-strŭk′shən) n. A philosophical movement and theory of literary criticism that questions traditional assumptions about certainty, identity, and truth; asserts that words can only refer to other words; and attempts to demonstrate how statements about any text subvert their own meanings. Although obviously a critical tool, it also lacks the sense, evident in Heidegger, that the text to be deconstructed is part of how European thought has somehow gone wrong and needs correction. As already noted, deconstruction differs from Destruktion in that it has no fixed or expected endpoint or map, but is rather a potentially infinite process. In psychoanalysis, deconstructive readings of texts by Sigmund Freud and others drew attention to the role of language in the formation of the psyche; showed how psychoanalytic case studies are shaped by the kinds of psychic mechanisms that they purport to analyze (thus, Freud’s writings are themselves organized by processes of repression, condensation, and displacement); and questioned the logocentric presuppositions of psychoanalytic theory. Are you an author? It rejects traditional readings and instead, calls readers to seek out contradictory viewpoints and analysis. In her book The Critical Difference (1981), Barbara Johnson clarifies the term: "Deconstruction is not synonymous with "destruction", however. They generally examined the individual work not as a self-contained artifact but as a product of relations with other texts or discourses, literary and nonliterary. Beginning in France in the 1950s, the structuralist movement in anthropology analyzed various cultural phenomena as general systems of “signs” and attempted to develop “metalanguages” of terms and concepts in which the different sign systems could be described. 1. a theory of textual analysis positing that a text has no stable reference and questioning assumptions about the ability of language to represent reality. Howard Felperin (Author) 3.0 out of 5 stars 1 rating. The work of Judith Butler, for example, challenged the claim that feminist politics requires a distinct identity for women. He also rejected the structuralist belief that texts have identifiable “centres” of meaning–a belief structuralists shared with formalists. As a result, deconstruction became associated and sometimes confused with other trends, including reader response theory, which argues that a text's Formalists ultimately make sense of the ambiguities they find in a given text, arguing that every ambiguity serves a definite, meaningful, and demonstrable literary function. With an emphasis on readers and reading, Jonathan Culler considered deconstruction in terms of the questions raised by psychoanalytic, feminist, and reader-response criticism. 1) on the fact that deconstruction sees all writing as a complex historical, cultural process rooted in the relations of texts to each other and in the institutions and conventions of writing, and 2) on the sophistication and intensity of its sense that human knowledge is not as controllable or as convincing as Western thought would have it and that language operates in subtle and often contradictory ways, so that certainty will always elude us. Others accused it of being ahistorical and apolitical. Deconstruction, as applied in the criticism of literature, designates a theory and practice of reading which questions and claims to "subvert" or "undermine" the assumption that the system of language provides grounds that are adequate to establish the boundaries, the coherence or unity, and the determinate meanings of a literary text. Deconstruction’s reception was coloured by its intellectual predecessors, most notably structuralism and New Criticism. This group came to be known as the Yale school and was especially influential in literary criticism. In all the fields it influenced, deconstruction called attention to rhetorical and performative aspects of language use, and it encouraged scholars to consider not only what a text says but also the relationship—and potential conflict—between what a text says and what it “does.” In various disciplines, deconstruction also prompted an exploration of fundamental oppositions and critical terms and a reexamination of ultimate goals. CAN HE IS CONSIDERED A DE- CONSTRUCTOR …. The volume focuses on the works of Jacques Derrida which caused this seismic shift in critical thought, as well as the work of N Some…, …his poststructuralist project to “deconstruct” the binary structures of thinking on which Western culture appeared to be based and to expose the hierarchies of power sustained by such simple oppositions (such as the favouring of speech over writing or masculine over feminine). In the United States in the 1970s and ’80s, deconstruction played a major role in the animation and transformation of literary studies by literary theory (often referred to simply as “theory”), which was concerned with questions about the nature of language, the production of meaning, and the relationship between literature and the numerous discourses that structure human experience and its histories. Deconstructive readings, in contrast, treated works of art not as the harmonious fusion of literal and figurative meanings but as instances of the intractable conflicts between meanings of different types. Founded in 1977 it remains responsive to new concerns and committed to patient, inventive reading as the wellspring of critical research. Find all the books, read about the author, and more. Arguing that identity is the product or result of action rather than the source of it, they embraced a performative concept of identity modeled on the way in which linguistic acts (such as promising) work to bring into being the entities (the promise) to which they refer. Deconstruction’s influence widened to include a variety of other disciplines. theory of deconstruction 1. See search results for this author. The movement explored fundamental oppositions such as public and private, essence and accident, and substance and form. Introduction to Modern Literary Theory. [1970–75; < French] Deconstruction, in essence, allows the reader to “take apart” a text in order to decipher a new meaning. The critical movement generally known as deconstruction centred on the instability and protean ambiguity of language. The term deconstruction has thus come to designate a range of radical theoretical enterprises in such fields as law, architecture, theology, feminism, gay and lesbian studies, ethics and political theory, in addition to philosophy, psychoanalysis, and literary and cultural studies. In anthropology, deconstruction contributed to an increased awareness of the role that anthropological field-workers play in shaping, rather than merely describing, the situations they report on and to a greater concern about the discipline’s historical connections to colonialism. Theory of deconstruction Huma Nawaz Hafsa zaheer Iqra batool Javerya Kausar kanwal 3.

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