0.90). “Racial Disparities in … Data from the Chicago Community Adult Health Study found that 42.9% of Blacks reported racial discrimination, compared to 30.5% of Latinos and 7.8% of Whites. Path models controlled for sex, ethnicity, age, income‐to‐needs, chronic illness and standardized body mass index score (zBMI) (data not shown). Several limitations warrant mention. At lower levels of discrimination, youth with shorter and longer sleep durations had relatively similar levels of externalizing behaviours (means = 7.30 and 8.99, respectively). These findings are consistent with some literature on the moderating role of sleep in various contexts (Bordeleau et al., 2012) and support a dual‐protection or protective–reactive pattern of effects (Luthar et al., 2000). No moderation effects were observed. In comparison to girls, boys had shorter sleep duration (meanboys = 391.99 min, SD = 53.36; meangirls = 418.78 min, SD = 53.36; t = 3.49, P < 0.001) and reported lower levels of anxiety (meanboys = 7.03, SD = 7.31; meangirls = 10.92, SD = 7.68; t = 3.98, P < 0.001) and depression (meanboys = 5.85, SD = 5.55; meangirls = 7.77, SD = 6.15; t = 2.51, P < 0.05). 1b). Nevertheless, moderation effects involving discrimination and sleep were found for all adjustment outcomes indicating that sleep could alter relations between risk factors and adjustment outcomes. Anxiety and depression are highly correlated constructs, and the similar pattern of effects across these two outcomes may be due in part to shared variance. American adults tend to differentiate between explicit, overt discrimination and this more subtle form (Williams et al., 1999). To ensure that the percentage of missing data for sleep minutes (23%), which is not atypical, did not have a great deal of bearing on results, additional analyses were conducted with the subsample that had valid actigraphy data (5 or more nights; n = 193). Children were from two parent homes and did not have a diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, developmental delays or a chronic illness. In 1997, women reported on "everyday" and "lifetime" experiences of racism. This research was supported by grant no. Adolescents were asked whether the following events (e.g. Building on the literature, perceived racial discrimination interacted with sleep to predict anxiety and depressive symptoms. Family Contexts of Sleep and Health Across the Life Course. On average, 5.44 nights (SD = 1.77) of valid actigraphy data were available per adolescent. Racial discrimination was associated with higher levels of externalizing symptoms, but no main or moderation effects with sleep emerged. Parents and adolescents gave written consent and assent to participate, respectively. The Moderating Role of Sleep in the Relationship Between Social Isolation and Internalising Problems in Early Adolescence. Further, sleep duration moderated the effects of discrimination on depressive symptoms and explained 3% of the unique variance in depression (total variance = 16.5%). The Everyday Discrimination Scale is widely used in public health research. Further, general perceived discrimination was associated more strongly with externalizing behaviours for youth with shorter versus longer sleep. Path coefficients reported are from the step of entry. Although the full models explained large percentages of the variance in youths' adjustment, the moderation effects accounted for a modest amount of variance, which is consistent with much of those reported in the pertinent literatures. Compared to AAs, EAs slept longer (meanEA = 413.52 min, SD = 50.27; meanAA = 387.97 min, SD = 61.93; t = 2.96, P < 0.01) and reported lower perceived racial discrimination (meanEA =10.48, SD = 10.35; meanAA = 20.20, SD = 13.22; t = −6.23, P < 0.001). At low levels of overall racial discrimination, in comparison to adolescents with longer sleep duration, those with shorter sleep duration had higher levels of depressive symptoms (means = 9.38 and 5.04, respectively), a difference of 0.73 SD. African Americans and Latinos had significantly higher scores on the discrimination measure than Whites. This is consistent with research showing higher levels of externalizing symptoms among children with short sleep durations (Kelly and El‐Sheikh, 2014), and suggests that this may be particularly the case at higher levels of stress exposure. Sleep quality and cultural orientation among Chinese and Korean undergraduates in the United States. We thank the staff of our research laboratory, most notably Bridget Wingo, for data collection and preparation, and the school personnel, children and parents who participated. This study fills this gap. Racial discrimination was associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. In particular, studies have found associations with externalizing symptoms (Coker et al., 2009; Fuller‐Rowell et al., 2011), as well as with depression and anxiety (Greene et al., 2006; Yip, 2014). Parents reported on demographic variables and adolescent externalizing problems, and adolescents reported on racial and everyday perceived discrimination, as well as anxiety and depression, in that order. The current cross-sectional study examined the associations between everyday experiences of discrimination and clinical pain, disability and functional performance among non-Hispanic Black (NHB) and non-Hispanic White (NHW) persons with or at risk of knee OA and assessed the serial mediated model of perceived stress and pain catastrophizing on these relationships in women only. A series of path models were fitted in amos (Arbuckle, 2012). Nearly 80% of study participants reported experiencing some everyday discrimination, and discrimination was common in each racial/ethnic group. American Journal of Public Health. Path models supported direct associations between sleep duration and only depression. Following current best practices, full information maximum likelihood estimation was used to handle missing data, which allows for the use of all available data (Acock, 2005). and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. It is also plausible that longer sleep may be protective against maladjustment in the context of low discrimination, but not high discrimination. However, Whites were most likely to report non-racial discrimination (55.6% versus 34.8% for … To reduce outlier effects, values of variables that exceeded 4 SDs were recoded as the highest or lowest observed value within 4 SDs. This study found an association between perceived racial discrimination with emotional eating ... Gee GC, Ro A, Gavin A, Takeuchi DT. Differences in externalizing problems between adolescents with shorter and longer sleep were more evident at high levels of discrimination (means = 16.05 and 13.12, respectively). The full text of this article hosted at iucr.org is unavailable due to technical difficulties. Among demographic and primary study variables (data not shown in Table 1), adolescents from higher socioeconomic status (SES) homes slept longer (r = 0.16, P < 0.05) and reported lower levels of racial discrimination (r = −0.16, P < 0.05). Moderation effects were evident. The role of sleep in emotional brain processing, Racism and health. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. The current study addresses this gap in the literature. However, those with longer sleep and lower levels of discrimination had the lowest levels of internalizing symptoms. Sleep problems may contribute to adjustment problems through their effects on brain processes critical for emotion and behavioural regulation (Dahl, 1996). (2006) interaction utility was used to test simple slopes of significant interactions. Some evidence, albeit scarce, has linked perceived discrimination with poor subjective sleep quality in youth (Huynh and Gillen‐O'Neel, 2013). Objective: Discrimination is posited to underlie racial disparities in hypertension. Although some of the findings corroborate those observed in a sample of adolescents from various ethnicities in NYC (Yip, 2014), the results need to be interpreted in the context of the larger socioeconomic milieu and the history of race relations in Alabama. Two types of approaches are generally used to assess perceived discrimination (Krieger, 2014): specifying the domain or type of discrimination (e.g. However, these effects are not uniform (Greene et al., 2006; Schmitt et al., 2014), and vulnerability and protective factors have been identified. It was not associated with any physical health outcomes measured. 19 Furthermore, the health impact of discrimination may vary according to the individual’s gender and age. A total score was obtained by summing the responses across the 15 items (Fisher et al., 2000); α = 0.90. General everyday discrimination refers to ‘perceptions of unfair treatment' and does not require an attribution to a specific personal characteristic. High SES was related to lower externalizing symptoms (B = −0.94, SE = 0.42, β = −0.16, P < 0.05). Everyday discrimination was associated with externalizing symptoms and sleep duration moderated this relation (Fig. Two items regarding sleep were removed (α = 0.87). Nights with medication use were excluded from analyses. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2007.114025. Sex, ethnicity, age, income‐to‐needs ratio, chronic illness and zBMI were covaried. Learn about our remote access options, Departments of Human Development and Family Studies, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, USA. Perceived discrimination in medical settings remains prevalent within the U.S. health care system. Items were rated on a four‐point scale (1 = often to 4 = never). The Relationship Between Sleep Duration and Mood in Adolescents: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Building upon recent research, we examined sleep duration as a moderator of the association between perceived discrimination and mental health. In the present study, both racial/ethnic and general everyday experiences of discrimination were examined. Perceived racial discrimination was also associated with frequent mental distress and with having an emotional or behavioral problem that needs treatment or counseling. Racial Discrimination: A Study of African Americans, 26 J. BLACKPSYCHOL 165, 175 (2000). Actigraphy‐based sleep data were collected during the school year. Various patterns of sleep as a moderator are plausible and two primary ones, which are not mutually exclusive, have been observed in this young literature. All authors contributed meaningfully to this manuscript. General everyday discrimination refers to ‘perceptions of unfair treatment’ and does not require an attribution to a specific personal characteristic. Adolescents with chronic illness had shorter sleep duration (r = −0.16, P < 0.05). Sleep minutes were derived by averaging data across all available nights. We evaluated the hypothesis that greater exposure to racism increases myoma risk in black women. Multi-group confirmatory factor analyses revealed that neither version of the scale generates estimates of discrimination that can be meaningfully compared across all racial/ethnic, age, gender, and education-based groups. We examine two forms of the EDS – one focusing on discrimination regardless of attribution and one focusing specifically on discrimination attributed to respondents’ race/ethnicity. However, the details of these experiences and their associations with perceived quality of care are not well understood. DESIGN: Cross-sectional (N=640) and longitudinal associations (N=133) between everyday experiences of discrimination and sleep quality were examined using a pregnancy and postpartum data registry. Blood pressure, although inconsistent findings have been restricted to racial/ethnic categories idea that specific incidents of discrimination. Wore actigraphs on their non‐dominant wrists for 7 consecutive nights, 5.44 nights ( =... In one ’ s for adolescents with longer sleep duration and only depression affective and responses. The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child health and Human Development awarded to mona El‐Sheikh,. Weight discrimination on body mass index and obesity among Asian Americans coping: moderated Mediation of daily,. Three values were recoded as the highest or lowest observed value within 4 were... Provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads were recoded as the highest lowest! 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Everyday discrimination was associated with higher levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms. A hierarchical regression showed that PIL as a Yip did not find effects for sleep duration (reported sleep period). While acknowledging study boundaries, this investigation provides evidence that sleep duration moderates associations linking perceived general and racial discrimination with internalizing and externalizing behaviours, and sheds some light on variables that may affect youths' adjustment in the context of such stress experiences. Furthermore, the affective and coping responses attached to these experiences may take a different form, and therefore interact uniquely with sleep sequelae. The Everyday Discrimination Scale (EDS) is among the most frequently used instruments to assess perceptions of discrimination in general, as well as specific types of discrimination (e.g., based on race/ethnicity or age). Conclusion: Our findings resemble those from other studies that use more extensive measures of PRD. To our knowledge, only one study has examined the moderating influence of sleep in the context of discrimination (Yip, 2014). We hypothesize that because social hierarchies of race/ethnicity, age, gender and class have different histories and are differently organized and institutionalized in contemporary United States, racial/ethnic, age, gender, and education-based groups differ in the types of discrimination they experience and perceive. For instance, as women and racial/ethnic minorities, Latinas report high levels of perceived everyday discrimination or “the belief that one has experienced unfair treatment by individuals and social institutions … based on personal characteristics such as race, gender, or weight” because of social hierarchies and interlocking systems of power/oppression in the United States . Adolescents reported on perceptions of day‐to‐day discrimination using a modified 10‐item version of the Everday Discrimination Scale (Guyll et al., 2001; Williams et al., 1997). [43] [44] It can also refer to the belief that groups of humans possess different behavioral traits corresponding to physical appearance and can be divided based on the superiority of one race over another. The ethnic/racial composition of the sample is representative of the area. As shown in Fig. © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Further, adolescents with the lowest depression were those with low discrimination in conjunction with better sleep. Supported by conceptual models of … By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Number of times cited according to CrossRef: Gender Discrimination, Perceived School Unfairness, Depressive Symptoms, and Sleep Duration Among Middle School Girls. The association was significant for youth with shorter (B = 0.81, SE = 0.09, P < 0.001) and longer (B = 0.38, SE = 0.09, P < 0.001) sleep, yet appears somewhat stronger for the former. Everyday discrimination is a neglected and important aspect of discrimination. Racial/ethnic discrimination is defined as ‘perceptions of unfair treatment on the basis of one's race/ethnicity'. Further, youth completed the Children's Depression Inventory (Kovacs, 1992). The techniques used for factor analysis were reviewed and critiqued and the adequacy of reporting was evaluated. The results illustrate that longer sleep duration may confer protection and shorter sleep duration may increase vulnerability for adjustment problems for individuals faced with perceived discrimination. well-being in a manner different from the effects of major experiences of unfair treatment. Further, youth with the lowest predicted levels of depressive symptoms were those with longer sleep in combination with lower levels of perceived discrimination (mean = 5.04). Further refinement of the Everyday Discrimination Scale is warranted. Supportive of this pattern, children and adolescents with the highest level of adaptation were those with longer and better quality sleep in conjunction with low familial (Bernier et al., 2014; Bordeleau et al., 2012; El‐Sheikh et al., 2014), peer (Tu et al., 2015) or sociocultural risks (Yip, 2014). 1a, youth with shorter sleep duration had relatively high levels of anxiety regardless of discrimination (mean = 12.37 at low and 12.70 at high discrimination). Methods: Everyday discrimination, lifetime discrimination, burden of discrimination, and stress from discrimination were examined among 4939 participants aged 35 to 84 years (women = 3123; men = 1816). Adolescents wore actigraphs on their non‐dominant wrists for 7 consecutive nights. Some evidence, albeit scarce, has linked perceived discrimination with poor subjective sleep quality in … t‐Tests were conducted to examine sex and ethnic differences in study variables. Interparental conflict and early adolescents' aggression: is irregular sleep a vulnerability factor? Research assessing the health-related consequences of perceived discrimination depends upon high quality measures of perceived discrimination. Gregg EW, Cheng YJ, Cadwell BL, Imperatore G, … Four items regarding sleep were excluded (α = 0.90). The aim of this study was to evaluate the exploratory factor analyses done on instruments measuring perceived racism/racial discrimination using guidelines from experts in psychometric theory. Several self-report measures (n= 9), however, have been identified and are summarized in three sub-categories. Families visited the laboratory 3.96 days (SD = 12.25) following the last night of actigraphy and completed questionnaires. Our results urge caution when drawing comparisons of perceived discrimination across diverse social groups based on the EDS and point to avenues for future scale development. Sleep is an important bioregulatory system that underlies emotional and behavioural regulation (Baum et al., 2014; Dahl, 1996). This model explained 16.1% of the variance in externalizing symptoms. Special Education, Rehabilitation and Counseling, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, USA. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2019.05.011. During the first wave (2005), participants were recruited from elementary schools in Alabama. "The most common experience reported is … The lowest levels of internalizing symptoms were observed for adolescents with longer sleep duration in conjunction with lower levels of perceived racial discrimination. General everyday discrimination refers to ‘perceptions of unfair treatment' and does not require an attribution to a specific personal characteristic. Previous research suggests that both types of discrimination examined are linked to mental health. For instance, short or poor‐quality sleep increased vulnerability for adjustment problems, whereas better sleep quality functioned as a protective factor in the context of family and peer stress (Lemola et al., 2012; Tu et al., 2015). As a result, the EDS may not be equivalent across these social groups. experiences of discrimination were examined. In the present study, both racial/ethnic and general everyday experiences of discrimination were examined. Height and weight were measured in the laboratory. On average, participants reported relatively low levels of perceived racial and everyday discrimination, obtained approximately 7 h of sleep per night and were relatively well‐adjusted (Table 1). Bivariate (Table 1) correlations indicated that discrimination was not associated with sleep. The study was approved by the university's institutional review board. The present investigation examined actigraphy‐based sleep minutes in relation to two domains of perceived discrimination (racial/ethnic and general unfair treatment) in the prediction of internalizing and externalizing behaviours in a sample of adolescents from predominantly rural and semi‐rural Alabama. The take‐home message of this scenario is similar to that of the present findings: adolescents at the least risk for maladjustment are those with longer sleep duration in conjunction with lower levels of discrimination. Fuller‐Rowell et al., 2012; Sellers et al., 2003). The current study examined self-reported racial discrimination toward Asians and Asian Americans living in the United States in relation to four mental and physical health outcomes: anxiety, depressive, and physical symptoms and sleep difficulties. In an exploratory study of African Americans' perceived experiences of isolate racial discrimination and its impact, the authors found that sixty percent of African Americans perceived that they had been discriminated against in the past three years. of everyday discrimination—the idea that specific incidents of racial bias can affect one’s . These models explained 31.4 and 35.1% of the variance in anxiety and depression, respectively. SD, standard deviation. Findings highlight the importance of sleep as a bioregulatory system that can ameliorate or exacerbate the effects of discrimination on youths' adjustment. Adolescents' sleep duration was examined as a moderator of the association between perceived discrimination and internalizing (anxiety, depression) and externalizing symptoms. Family income‐to‐needs ratio (annual family income divided by the poverty threshold considering the family size; US Department of Commerce, 2013) indicated that ~42% of families were living below or near the poverty line (ratio < 2) and 36% were middle class (ratio ≥ 3). Reports of racially discriminatory behaviors toward Asians in the United States have surged during the COVID-19 pandemic. Adolescents also reported whether they attributed their overall experiences to each of the following domains (yes, no, does not apply): language (<5% reported yes), gender (10%), income (10%), religion (10%), race/ethnicity (16%), body weight (18%), physical appearance (26%), clothing (28%), age (34%) and with whom they hang out (46%). on everyday perceived racial discrimination or racial daily hassles. Yip (2014) found that youth with lower levels of perceived ethnic discrimination accompanied by higher sleep quality had the lowest levels of depressive symptoms. Working off-campus? Everyday Discrimination Scale (Short Version) alpha = .77 Developed for the Chicago Community Adult Health Study (CCAHS) Source : Sternthal, M., Slopen, N., Williams, D.R. However, few studies have examined sleep as a moderator that may ameliorate or amplify the effects of perceived discrimination on youths' adjustment. Racial and ethnic discrimination differentiates individuals on the basis of real and perceived racial and ethnic differences and leads to various forms of the ethnic penalty. Enter your email address below and we will send you your username, If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. Sleep insufficiency has a negative impact on the experience and processing of emotions (Baum et al., 2014; Soffer‐Dudek et al., 2011; Walker and van Der Helm, 2009), which could contribute to adjustment problems. With evidence of dual‐risk and dual‐protection effects emerging in the literature on sleep as a moderator, it is possible that shorter sleep may increase risk and longer sleep may ameliorate risk in the association between discrimination and adjustment problems. Previous psychometric assessments have been restricted to racial/ethnic categories. Associations between neighborhood context, physical activity, and sleep in adolescents, http://www.cdc.gov/healthyweight/assessing/bmi/childrens_bmi/childrens_bmi_formula.html, http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty/about/overview/measure.html. We did not find the scale to be equivalent across all groups compared. Sleep Facilitates Coping: Moderated Mediation of Daily Sleep, Ethnic/Racial Discrimination, Stress Responses, and Adolescent Well‐Being. Racial/ethnic discrimination is defined as ‘perceptions of unfair treatment on the basis of one’s race/ethnicity’. In the present study, the number of minutes during which youth were asleep was assessed, which may account for some of the differential effects. Racial discrimination predicted higher levels of anxiety (Table 2). Data were obtained using actigraphy (Motionlogger Octagonal Basic; Ambulatory Monitoring Inc., Ardsley, NY, USA) and scored with the Sadeh algorithm (Sadeh et al., 1994). We test this hypothesis by analyzing data from the 2015 US Texas Diversity Study (N=1,049), a telephone survey of English- and Spanish-speaking adults. For youth who slept longer, the expected positive association between ethnic discrimination and internalizing symptoms was evident. Participants were 252 adolescents (mean: 15.79 years; 66% European American, 34% African American) who reported on their perceived discrimination (racial and general) and adjustment. racial/ethnic) (Fisher et al., 2000) or general reports of unfair treatment across a broader range of possible events (Krieger et al., 2005; Williams et al., 1997). We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Methods : Data were derived from the Black Women's Health Study, a prospective cohort study of US black women age 21-69 years in 1995. Racial discrimination was related to anxiety among youth with longer sleep duration (B = 0.23, SE = 0.04, P < 0.001), but not among those with shorter sleep duration (B = 0.01, SE = 0.04, P = 0.77). Measuring perceived mistreatment across diverse social groups: An evaluation of the Everyday Discrimination Scale. “Racial Disparities in Health: How Much Does Stress Really Matter?” Racial discrimination and socioemotional and sleep problems in a cross-sectional survey of Australian school students. Racial/ethnic discrimination is defined as ‘perceptions of unfair treatment on the basis of one's race/ethnicity'. Thus, body mass index ... a sample of 3,300 women of various different races from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation and using the Everyday Discrimination Scale, also found no association between the discrimination perceived by different ethnic-racial groups and high pressure levels. No differences across study variables emerged between participants recruited at T1 versus T4. Exploratory analyses examining two‐ and three‐way interactions among discrimination, sleep and either ethnicity, sex or SES yielded mainly null effects with no clear pattern of effects. For these youth, the subset with higher levels of discrimination had relatively high levels of internalizing symptoms. For example, being prompted to report experiences of racial discrimination versus general unfair treatment may lead individuals to recollect different sets of experiences. Perceived racism or racial discrimination and its psychological correlates have garnered much attention over the past two decades. 2008; 98 (3):493–500. Findings from other studies have revealed a dual‐protection or protective–reactive pattern of effects (Luthar et al., 2000), in which a protective attribute (better sleep) is beneficial in low‐ but not high‐risk contexts. Tests of simple slopes revealed that discrimination predicted depression for youth with longer but not shorter sleep duration (B = 0.20, SE = 0.03, P < 0.001; B = 0.05, SE = 0.03, P = 0.11; respectively; Fig. No significant interactions emerged for ethnicity, one of six interactions emerged for sex and two of six interactions emerged for SES; thus, these were not considered further. Adolescents completed the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale 2 (Reynolds and Richmond, 2008). 2); the interaction effect explained 2% of unique variance (total variance = 21.1%). At T1, 251 children participated, and of those children, 79% (n = 199) participated at T4. We analyze the extent to which the scale is equivalent across diverse social groups. Of the 21 respondents who reported experiencing some form of everyday discrimination, 43 percent encountered some difficulty in identifying a single main reason for their experiences; 42 percent of women who perceived some form of discrimination evidence significant frustration in identifying a main reason. Nevertheless, it is also possible that other moderation effects could emerge and our main objective was the identification of sleep as a moderator of risk and explicating the pattern of such effects. Participants were EAs and AAs from rural and semi‐rural Alabama and many were economically disadvantaged. Sleep duration was measured using actigraphy. In total, three values were recoded, including one for perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and two for externalizing symptoms. At high levels of discrimination, youth had similar levels of depression regardless of sleep (mean = 10.63 for short sleepers and 10.07 for longer sleepers). Meanwhile, Sims et al. It is not clear why different patterns of effects emerged for the two discrimination domains in conjunction with various outcome measures. Those with higher levels of discrimination and poor sleep had higher depressive symptoms, which can be construed as quite similar to our findings. Items were rated on a six‐point scale (0 = does not apply to me; 1 = not at all upsetting to 5 = extremely upsetting). Black women also report higher levels of racial discrimination. Sleep insufficiency is associated with increased negative emotions and emotion regulation difficulties (Baum et al., 2014), as well as internalizing and externalizing problems in youth (Kelly and El‐Sheikh, 2014). Sleep and Development: Familial and Socio-cultural Considerations. Everyday Discrimination Scale (Short Version) alpha = .77 • Developed for the Chicago Community Adult Health Study (CCAHS) • Source : Sternthal, M., Slopen, N., Williams, D.R. The scale covers discrimination in different areas of life, including at school, at work, and in one’s neighborhood. perceived racial discrimination (PRD) on suicidal ideation (b = - .47, p = .13), however, PIL was a significant moderator ( b = - .06, p = .025 ). Perceived discrimination has a harmful effect on the psychological adjustment of adolescents (Schmitt et al., 2014), but its consequences are not uniform (Greene et al., 2006). While numerous studies attest to its validity and reliability for racial/ethnic minority groups, no existing study has examined its psychometric equivalence across gender, age, or socio-economic groups. R01‐HD046795 from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development awarded to Mona El‐Sheikh. Path models were a good fit to the data (non‐significant χ2, root mean square error of approximation <0.05, comparative fit index >0.90). “Racial Disparities in … Data from the Chicago Community Adult Health Study found that 42.9% of Blacks reported racial discrimination, compared to 30.5% of Latinos and 7.8% of Whites. Path models controlled for sex, ethnicity, age, income‐to‐needs, chronic illness and standardized body mass index score (zBMI) (data not shown). Several limitations warrant mention. At lower levels of discrimination, youth with shorter and longer sleep durations had relatively similar levels of externalizing behaviours (means = 7.30 and 8.99, respectively). These findings are consistent with some literature on the moderating role of sleep in various contexts (Bordeleau et al., 2012) and support a dual‐protection or protective–reactive pattern of effects (Luthar et al., 2000). No moderation effects were observed. In comparison to girls, boys had shorter sleep duration (meanboys = 391.99 min, SD = 53.36; meangirls = 418.78 min, SD = 53.36; t = 3.49, P < 0.001) and reported lower levels of anxiety (meanboys = 7.03, SD = 7.31; meangirls = 10.92, SD = 7.68; t = 3.98, P < 0.001) and depression (meanboys = 5.85, SD = 5.55; meangirls = 7.77, SD = 6.15; t = 2.51, P < 0.05). 1b). Nevertheless, moderation effects involving discrimination and sleep were found for all adjustment outcomes indicating that sleep could alter relations between risk factors and adjustment outcomes. Anxiety and depression are highly correlated constructs, and the similar pattern of effects across these two outcomes may be due in part to shared variance. American adults tend to differentiate between explicit, overt discrimination and this more subtle form (Williams et al., 1999). To ensure that the percentage of missing data for sleep minutes (23%), which is not atypical, did not have a great deal of bearing on results, additional analyses were conducted with the subsample that had valid actigraphy data (5 or more nights; n = 193). Children were from two parent homes and did not have a diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, developmental delays or a chronic illness. In 1997, women reported on "everyday" and "lifetime" experiences of racism. This research was supported by grant no. Adolescents were asked whether the following events (e.g. Building on the literature, perceived racial discrimination interacted with sleep to predict anxiety and depressive symptoms. Family Contexts of Sleep and Health Across the Life Course. On average, 5.44 nights (SD = 1.77) of valid actigraphy data were available per adolescent. Racial discrimination was associated with higher levels of externalizing symptoms, but no main or moderation effects with sleep emerged. Parents and adolescents gave written consent and assent to participate, respectively. The Moderating Role of Sleep in the Relationship Between Social Isolation and Internalising Problems in Early Adolescence. Further, sleep duration moderated the effects of discrimination on depressive symptoms and explained 3% of the unique variance in depression (total variance = 16.5%). The Everyday Discrimination Scale is widely used in public health research. Further, general perceived discrimination was associated more strongly with externalizing behaviours for youth with shorter versus longer sleep. Path coefficients reported are from the step of entry. Although the full models explained large percentages of the variance in youths' adjustment, the moderation effects accounted for a modest amount of variance, which is consistent with much of those reported in the pertinent literatures. Compared to AAs, EAs slept longer (meanEA = 413.52 min, SD = 50.27; meanAA = 387.97 min, SD = 61.93; t = 2.96, P < 0.01) and reported lower perceived racial discrimination (meanEA =10.48, SD = 10.35; meanAA = 20.20, SD = 13.22; t = −6.23, P < 0.001). At low levels of overall racial discrimination, in comparison to adolescents with longer sleep duration, those with shorter sleep duration had higher levels of depressive symptoms (means = 9.38 and 5.04, respectively), a difference of 0.73 SD. African Americans and Latinos had significantly higher scores on the discrimination measure than Whites. This is consistent with research showing higher levels of externalizing symptoms among children with short sleep durations (Kelly and El‐Sheikh, 2014), and suggests that this may be particularly the case at higher levels of stress exposure. Sleep quality and cultural orientation among Chinese and Korean undergraduates in the United States. We thank the staff of our research laboratory, most notably Bridget Wingo, for data collection and preparation, and the school personnel, children and parents who participated. This study fills this gap. Racial discrimination was associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. In particular, studies have found associations with externalizing symptoms (Coker et al., 2009; Fuller‐Rowell et al., 2011), as well as with depression and anxiety (Greene et al., 2006; Yip, 2014). Parents reported on demographic variables and adolescent externalizing problems, and adolescents reported on racial and everyday perceived discrimination, as well as anxiety and depression, in that order. The current cross-sectional study examined the associations between everyday experiences of discrimination and clinical pain, disability and functional performance among non-Hispanic Black (NHB) and non-Hispanic White (NHW) persons with or at risk of knee OA and assessed the serial mediated model of perceived stress and pain catastrophizing on these relationships in women only. A series of path models were fitted in amos (Arbuckle, 2012). Nearly 80% of study participants reported experiencing some everyday discrimination, and discrimination was common in each racial/ethnic group. American Journal of Public Health. Path models supported direct associations between sleep duration and only depression. Following current best practices, full information maximum likelihood estimation was used to handle missing data, which allows for the use of all available data (Acock, 2005). and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. It is also plausible that longer sleep may be protective against maladjustment in the context of low discrimination, but not high discrimination. However, Whites were most likely to report non-racial discrimination (55.6% versus 34.8% for … To reduce outlier effects, values of variables that exceeded 4 SDs were recoded as the highest or lowest observed value within 4 SDs. This study found an association between perceived racial discrimination with emotional eating ... Gee GC, Ro A, Gavin A, Takeuchi DT. Differences in externalizing problems between adolescents with shorter and longer sleep were more evident at high levels of discrimination (means = 16.05 and 13.12, respectively). The full text of this article hosted at iucr.org is unavailable due to technical difficulties. Among demographic and primary study variables (data not shown in Table 1), adolescents from higher socioeconomic status (SES) homes slept longer (r = 0.16, P < 0.05) and reported lower levels of racial discrimination (r = −0.16, P < 0.05). Moderation effects were evident. The role of sleep in emotional brain processing, Racism and health. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. The current study addresses this gap in the literature. However, those with longer sleep and lower levels of discrimination had the lowest levels of internalizing symptoms. Sleep problems may contribute to adjustment problems through their effects on brain processes critical for emotion and behavioural regulation (Dahl, 1996). (2006) interaction utility was used to test simple slopes of significant interactions. Some evidence, albeit scarce, has linked perceived discrimination with poor subjective sleep quality in youth (Huynh and Gillen‐O'Neel, 2013). Objective: Discrimination is posited to underlie racial disparities in hypertension. Although some of the findings corroborate those observed in a sample of adolescents from various ethnicities in NYC (Yip, 2014), the results need to be interpreted in the context of the larger socioeconomic milieu and the history of race relations in Alabama. Two types of approaches are generally used to assess perceived discrimination (Krieger, 2014): specifying the domain or type of discrimination (e.g. However, these effects are not uniform (Greene et al., 2006; Schmitt et al., 2014), and vulnerability and protective factors have been identified. It was not associated with any physical health outcomes measured. 19 Furthermore, the health impact of discrimination may vary according to the individual’s gender and age. A total score was obtained by summing the responses across the 15 items (Fisher et al., 2000); α = 0.90. General everyday discrimination refers to ‘perceptions of unfair treatment' and does not require an attribution to a specific personal characteristic. High SES was related to lower externalizing symptoms (B = −0.94, SE = 0.42, β = −0.16, P < 0.05). Everyday discrimination was associated with externalizing symptoms and sleep duration moderated this relation (Fig. Two items regarding sleep were removed (α = 0.87). Nights with medication use were excluded from analyses. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2007.114025. Sex, ethnicity, age, income‐to‐needs ratio, chronic illness and zBMI were covaried. Learn about our remote access options, Departments of Human Development and Family Studies, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, USA. Perceived discrimination in medical settings remains prevalent within the U.S. health care system. Items were rated on a four‐point scale (1 = often to 4 = never). The Relationship Between Sleep Duration and Mood in Adolescents: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Building upon recent research, we examined sleep duration as a moderator of the association between perceived discrimination and mental health. In the present study, both racial/ethnic and general everyday experiences of discrimination were examined. Perceived racial discrimination was also associated with frequent mental distress and with having an emotional or behavioral problem that needs treatment or counseling. Racial Discrimination: A Study of African Americans, 26 J. BLACKPSYCHOL 165, 175 (2000). Actigraphy‐based sleep data were collected during the school year. Various patterns of sleep as a moderator are plausible and two primary ones, which are not mutually exclusive, have been observed in this young literature. All authors contributed meaningfully to this manuscript. General everyday discrimination refers to ‘perceptions of unfair treatment’ and does not require an attribution to a specific personal characteristic. Adolescents with chronic illness had shorter sleep duration (r = −0.16, P < 0.05). Sleep minutes were derived by averaging data across all available nights. We evaluated the hypothesis that greater exposure to racism increases myoma risk in black women. Multi-group confirmatory factor analyses revealed that neither version of the scale generates estimates of discrimination that can be meaningfully compared across all racial/ethnic, age, gender, and education-based groups. We examine two forms of the EDS – one focusing on discrimination regardless of attribution and one focusing specifically on discrimination attributed to respondents’ race/ethnicity. However, the details of these experiences and their associations with perceived quality of care are not well understood. 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