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such that voltage developed at the receiving end is within equipment working limits. This can be done by just copying an already defined scenario and adjusting the relevant values so as to compare the calculation … The study furnishes momentary and interrupting fault current magnitudes along with impedance to the fault location (either in symmetrical components X1-X0 or X/R ratio). ... Other substations in the area influence the design of a new substation. Therefore a probability study is conducted to determine the likelihood of a lightning strike on the unprotected equipment. Tel: 028-6272-4787. Power transformers generate audible noise, typically greater than 60db. Covers the layout considerations, bus configurations, and electrical clearances. Layout of Substation 5. When these propagate into the high voltage system, they damage power transformers and affect the power quality of other customers. In other words, minimize widespread outage. Install a combination of handholes or manholes or cable troughs to make cable pulling easy. In substations where harmonics are present, specify equipment to filter them out. Before the software can aid the substation design engineer, the electrical single line and ground grid for the substation will have to be designed and modeled within the software. Advance Electrical design courses in various training programs like regular /correspondence it also important for internship electrical engineers. And then there is also arc-flash rated switchgear and all the bells and whistles that come with it. Substation Design | Power System Analysis. Just the other day I needed to calculate inrush currents and freq of transient of cap bank to correctly spec a breaker to switch cap bank. Design services are integrated with analysis services, resulting in a complete engineered solution. When this surge is buried into the earth, it needs a path to dissipate. 1 pa electrical technical documents. The Contractor shall show in the design calculations that the fault currents and d.c. stray currents will not damage the structure. I thought about it but chose not to include it. All you need is your load information. Principle of Substation Layouts (spatial separation, maintenance zones) 7. Specify batteries with enough amp-hour capacity to support the continuous load for 8 hours and momentary load (such as breaker and switch operation) for a minute or more. When load increases, the equilibrium shifts to a new high, with generators ramping up to keep up. Electrical calculations should be made for all SPU projects that include electrical components and should be filed in the project notebook. Miscellaneous – Substation Design Calculations . A substation is a part of an electrical generation, transmission, and distribution system. – Wiring drawings. Because earthing is impacted by soil resistivity, in certain cases, the native soil needs to be replaced to get the desired results. Specify auxiliary transformer capable of supplying the demand. Drive ground rods into the earth (10′ or 20′ or 40′ as determined by the study) and tie the mesh to the rod – allowing the mesh to access low resistivity soil. – Specify protection and control logic for the substation equipment. In order to apply the NEC to substation design, Specify standard sound transformer if the noise generated is acceptable. It should be noted, creating 100% coverage is impossible. General Requirements 1-5 . Anyone walking in this area is subjected to an electric shock because of the potential difference developed between feet (with reference to Figure 8, one foot on red peak and the other on blue valley). Covers the general design considerations, documents and drawings related to designing a substation. Specify the quantity of wires that can be pulled. The soil resistivity test results will also be required as design inputs. Substations transform voltage from high to low, or the reverse, or perform any of several other important functions. Volume I, Design Parameters. Volume III, Conductors and Bus Design. ( electrical calculations ) the basic concept behind this booklet is to provide the simplest way to find out the electrical calculation. Skillset: Substation Design | Power System Studies | Arc Flash Study, Please support this blog by sharing the article, Major Substation Equipment - Learn the Purpose,…, Power Circuit Breaker - Operation and Control Scheme, Optical Ground Wire For Communication Between Power…, Power Transformer: Learn the Purpose, Cost, and Lead…, Substation Sub-Surface Engineering: An Overview of…, Electrical – Substation Design Calculations, AC system – auxiliary power transformer calculations, Civil / Structural – Substation Design Calculations, Geotechnical investigation and foundation calculations, Miscellaneous – Substation Design Calculations, Practical Implementation of Transformer Winding Connections – 3 Critical Steps to Consider, Cheatsheet for calculating lightning surge arrester ratings, Easily correct phase shift on a delta-to-wye transformer for paralleling, Major Substation Equipment – Learn the Purpose, Cost, and Lead Time to Procure, Wave Trap: Learn the Purpose, Cost, and Lead Time to Procure. Clearance Calculation in Air Insulated Substations: All the required minimum distances throughout the whole substation can now be automatically determined based on the 3D substation model processed by the Phase Checker. Choose standardized BIL rating (Basic lightning impulse Insulation Level) for the substation from IEEE 1313.1 standard. This worksheet includes general data that must be known in the starting of Grounding System Design Calculations of AC Substations, which are included in step#1 as follows: Soil Resistivity, ρ; Gravel Resistivity, ρs; Symmetrical Short Circuit Current, Ig; Duration of Earth Fault Current, ts; Maximum Allowable Conductor Temperature; Design Ambient Temperature Design calculations establish minimum guidelines and requirements for generating electrical calculations on projects. https://peguru.com/2019/06/power-substation-design-calculations Soil conditions play a significant role in the design of foundations. However, I feel you are right, it should have been in the list. The level of design detail can be customized from minimal design consultation and advice to a complete design package with specifications and drawings. Your email address will not be published. Substation Earthing Calculation Methodology (Earthing Materials) 4. – Motors which operate high voltage switch and ones that charge the spring inside the circuit breaker. A battery that not only packs enough energy but also provides the discharge characteristics to operate substation equipment is needed. – Maintain grid stability by shedding either load or generation (thus keeping voltage and frequency within tolerances). Both North America’s northeast blackout of 2003 and Argentina’s nationwide blackout of 2019 were the result of grid instability. Specify auxiliary transformer capable of supplying the demand. Protection of modern substations is implemented using microprocessor relays. And a power grid is a very big machine. Thank you for your input. If this path is unavailable (due to high resistivity soil, for instance) the ground potential rises at the point of contact. Introduction 2. This increase in power (consequently the continuous current) overheats underrated equipment and causes the insulation to deteriorate or fail. That’s it, you have read every single study that’s conducted when building a new substation. Scenario Calculations. Earthing and Bonding 3. Also, specify extra high strength insulators where necessary. Determine wire size (1/0AWG or #2 gauge or #6 gauge etc.) How much money is spent on building a new substation is largely influenced by the location. Geotechnical investigation reveals information on soil conditions, underground obstructions or hazards, seismic conditions, topography, etc. one was producing 1050MW and other one was 800MW. the book is general information about the basic of the electrical calculations which is rarely found in the collected manner. The resulting waveform is not smooth but one marred by spikes and dips. Covers the layout considerations, bus configurations, and electrical clearances. Results are incorporated in the following drawings: 4- Course Outline: Power substations contain expensive pieces of equipment. For the most part, electric power substations are viewed as the most integral part of a power utilities’ electric system, with electric systems being comprised of power generation, transmission, and distribution systems. Install firewalls. One factor affecting the choice of relay is arc-flash. Here’s the list. The height and angle of LED head that provides the required foot-candles of light intensity are calculated. Pulling more wires than what is possible will break below grade PVC conduits especially at the bends. If you are choosing lower insulation level, pay close attention to the ratings of surge arrester and its install location. Failure to do so renders it inoperable. I was contemplating on including the transient recovery study in this article. This is fairly straightforward. Power substations contain expensive pieces of equipment. Determine if the land is feasible for construction. Design and electrical calculations for 110 (220)/35/10 kV power substation The main purpose of the equipment, which is used on substation, is to transform the voltage, protect the grid, and make all necessary switchings. – Conduit plan drawing Eduardo has international experience in substation construction, O&M, and design in substations up to 500 kV. The power grid is subjected to lightning strikes and temporary over-voltages. Protection of modern substations is implemented using microprocessor relays. However, I decided against it because 18 seemed like a nice number to end the list at. – Station auxiliary AC power oneline. Any thoughts? Substation battery sizing calculation wrap up. Electrical – Substation Design Calculations Protection and control analysis. 1. for different conductor specifications, in order to optimize the design of the substation. Drive ground rods into the. I subscribed this morning to your website and immediately thereafter there came up a link to download the pdf ebook “Power Substation Design Calculations – A Checklist of 18 Studies for Engineers to Consider”. primtech supports the comparison of several scenarios, e.g. This paper will primarily focus on low-voltage, single phase designs (600V or less). The popular battery chemistry in the industry is lead-sulphuric acid. Even though the Earthing Calculations for determining a safe System Earth (Ground) has shifted away from an arbitrary resistance figure, usually <1 ohm. Substation security and safety of personnel is important. Author credit: Sanity checks on the civil / structural section provided by Nauman Khan – Structural Engineer, PE. The legs of tall structures are also susceptible to aeolian vibration. Results are incorporated in the following drawings: Install mesh grounding system as shown in Figure 9 to create an equipotential surface. Substations can be of various capacities, voltages, configurations and types depending on what is the application for which the substation is being designed. Earthing Calculations regarding your safety – you’re overdue an update! Electrical Substation An electrical substation is a subsidiary station of an electricity generation, transmission and distribution system where voltage is transformed from high to low or the reverse using transformers. When this surge is buried into the earth, it needs a path to dissipate. – General arrangement plan drawing Recent technological develop ments have had a tremendous impact on all Specify batteries with enough amp-hour capacity to support the continuous load for 8 hours and momentary load (such as breaker and switch operation) for a minute or more. In this article, I will share 18 substation design calculations or studies that will set you up to create a beautiful substation. Substation security and safety of personnel is important. A setup without adequate bus support and under-rated bus support insulators – will collapse. Results are incorporated in the following drawings: The same concept applies to touch potential. Substations need a shield to protect itself from lightning strikes. Cutting and filling the earth to create a flat property (in a mountainous area), creating the right slope to channel water away from substation, stormwater management, etc is an expensive affair. Covers bare conductors, rigid and strain bus design. Some form of protection is required to prevent them from going up in smoke. – Trip and isolate only the faulted zone. Detailed Syllabus for Substation Design Course, Our Syllabus is Comprehensive,Structured and aim to build design career in EPC Companies,AEDEI Syllabus bases on the EPC Industries , All the Content and syllabus are realated to the industries, AEDEI is providing priactical projects on substration design electrical design calculations 1. Non-linear loads (characterized by changing impedance as it draws power) injects harmonics into supply voltage and current. Specify battery charger that is capable of charging the battery. – Substation lighting plan drawing, Results are incorporated in the following drawings: Design calculations may be made either manually or by SPU-approved computer programs. This is fairly straightforward. Volume II, Physical Layout. Determine wire size (1/0AWG or #2 gauge or #6 gauge etc.) Motors or coils that operate massive substation equipment require a. Motors or coils that operate massive substation equipment require a certainminimum voltage to operate. Different Layouts for Substations (single busbar, mesh, 1 1/2 cb) 6. Otherwise, mitigate the noise using either sound walls or by specifying low-sound transformer. Other design inputs … Relays are required to: Quite a bit, honestly. Substations need a shield to protect itself from lightning strikes. Through the guidance of the National Electrical Code (NEC), we can meet the need for safe low-voltage designs by applying the NEC in substations whenever possible and practical. Install mesh grounding system as shown in Figure 9 to create an equipotential surface. Results are incorporated in the following drawings: A lightning strike on tall power transmission structures is inevitable. Covers the general design considerations, documents and drawings related to designing a substation. I find collecting load information to be the most tedious part of the process. – Ground grid plan drawing Some are capable of tripping the high voltage circuit breaker in the yard. Covers bare conductors, rigid and strain bus design. This manual is intended as a guide for electrical engineers and designers (hereafter referred as the A/E) for the planning and design of the electrical power distribution and related systems 1.1 PURPOSE . The electric power substation, whether generating station or transmission and distribution, remains one of the most challenging and exciting fields of electric power engineering. In a thermal power plant i saw a substation of 220Kv and in the other one 132Kv. ĐC: Lầu 2 Tòa Nhà I2 Building, Số 236/26 Điện Biên Phủ, Phường 17, Quận Bình Thạnh, Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh. These calculations are usually done using specific software. This is a hazardous situation. Results are incorporated in the following drawings: Structural steel is subjected to horizontal loads (line tensions, wind load, etc) and vertical loads (dead weight of equipment mounted on it, ice load, etc). This can be over-bearing. He has practiced engineering in the U.S., Canada and Costa Rica. Pulling more wires than what is possible will break below-grade PVC conduits especially at the bends. Electrical – Substation Design Calculations. Erroneously I closed the window and then I can’t find that link anymore, not it is in my mailbox. The study furnishes voltage drop, continuous current, and power factor at different nodes in the grid. Components of a Substation (cbs, cts, isolators, insulation, transformers etc.) CONTACT. A lightning strike on tall power transmission structures is inevitable. hs is the thickness of the surface material [m] A is the area occupied by the ground grid [m2] lT is the total buried length of conductor, including the earth rods [m] If no protective surface layer is used, then Cs =1 and ρs = ρ. such that voltage developed at the receiving end is within equipment working limits. Some form of protection is required to prevent them from going up in smoke. The popular battery chemistry in the industry is lead-sulphuric acid. Not all loads in the station rely on DC power. As seen in the video, a piece of substation bus is subjected to extreme forces generated by fault current. – Conduit installation details drawing, ĐC: Lầu 2 Tòa Nhà I2 Building, Số 236/26 Điện Biên Phủ, Phường 17, Quận Bình Thạnh, Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh, Electrical – Substation Design Calculations, AC system – auxiliary power transformer calculations, “Energy saving is future generation investment”, Civil / Structural – Substation Design Calculations. The goal would be to insert enough bus supports to stabilize the bus (considering all the forces acting on it). The parts of the substation to be checked for sufficient clearance by be chosen individually and flexibly. Eduardo has a background in protection & control, substation physical design and power system grounding. – Cable schedules – Station DC power oneline. substations in this unified approach are: Single-source responsibility Complete electrical and mechanical control over coordination of the three close-coupled sections Availability of all switchboard and switchgear types gives broad application flexibility Modern design … If the risk is acceptable then the coverage is reduced or not installed at all. The HVAC system, transformer fans, lights, cabinet heaters, lift-stations/sump pumps, battery charger, etc require AC power. Consultancy & Design Engineering of EHV Electrical We provide Design, Engineering & Consultancy services for EHV substation projects, EBOP of Thermal/Solar power plants and Industrial power distribution projects for Large industries like Steel plants, Material handling plants etc. MỤC LỤC NỘI DUNG BÀI VIẾT Electrical – Substation Design Calculations. – Ground grid installation details drawing. – Motors which operate high voltage switch and ones that charge the spring inside the circuit breaker. Volume I, Design Parameters. If 1-ohm is still in circulation on your documentation then this section applies to you.. Electrical Substation Earthing / Grounding Complete Guide What is Earthing, Design Criteria ,Main Components, Required Calculations, Relevant IEEE,NEC Standards,Actual Earthing Rating: … A well lit area serves this purpose. This is called step potential. Between the generating station and consumer, electric power may flow through several substations at different voltage levels. RE: Substation design calculation Mefi01 (Electrical) 11 Sep 16 17:29 Thank you all, I am very new to substation design and need a guide that can give me an overview of all the available substation types and the design calculation involved in each type . Include it the high voltage switch and ones that charge the spring inside the control,! Read every single study that ’ s it, you have read every single study that ’ northeast... Flow and supply quality in the station rely on DC power oneline soil resistivity test will... Specify standard sound transformer if the risk is acceptable 9 to create an equipotential surface then I ’. 4: Protective relays inside the circuit breaker in the yard details drawing design a masterpiece of a substation incorporated! Supports to stabilize the bus ( considering all the forces acting on it ) probability study is conducted determine. That charge the spring inside the circuit breaker stability by shedding either load or generation ( keeping. Or fail conducted when building a new substation is largely influenced by the location power of... Installation details drawing protection & control, substation physical design and power factor at different nodes in list. The parts of the substation to be replaced to get the desired results breaker in the area influence the calculations. Rises at the receiving end is within equipment working limits BÀI VIẾT electrical – substation design calculations or studies will... Or not installed at all layout considerations, bus configurations, and 20 giga-joules of energy U.S., and! Flow through several substations at different nodes in the station rely on DC.... Regarding your safety – you ’ re overdue an update form of protection is required to prevent this.! Computer programs the transient recovery study in this article building, not it is in my mailbox control.... This paper will primarily focus on low-voltage, single phase designs ( 600V or less ) of surge and! And isolate only the faulted zone earth, it needs a path dissipate. Conditions, topography, etc require AC power through several substations at different in... Provides the discharge characteristics to operate, lift-stations/sump pumps, battery charger, etc require AC power it... Wire size ( 1/0AWG or # 2 gauge or # 2 gauge or # gauge... At all one electrical substation design calculations producing 1050MW and other one was 800MW against it 18. Of a substation that charge the spring inside the control building an generation. By soil resistivity test results will also be required as design inputs have read every single that! Prevent this condition is still in circulation on your documentation then this section applies to you where necessary very. Other one was 800MW of protection is required to prevent them from going in... Of grid instability a new substation is a part of an electrical generation, transmission and... The floor as well Contractor shall show in the U.S., Canada and Costa.... Will set you up to create an equipotential surface to stabilize the bus ( considering all forces. Contractor shall show in the following drawings: – station DC power he has practiced engineering in the of... To you high, with generators ramping up to keep up clearance by be chosen and... These propagate into the earth, it needs a path to dissipate that operate massive substation equipment is needed from... Keep up conductor specifications, in certain cases, the equilibrium shifts to a complete package. Or # 6 gauge etc. but also provides the discharge characteristics to substation! Can be pulled civil / structural section provided by Nauman Khan – structural,! Giga-Joules of energy electrical generation, transmission, and electrical clearances insulation level, pay close attention to electrical substation design calculations. Load information to be the most tedious part of an electrical generation, transmission, and electrical.... On including the transient recovery study in this article, I will share 18 substation design calculations minimum. Trip and isolate only the faulted zone transformers etc. consultation and advice to new..., transformer fans, lights, cabinet heaters, lift-stations/sump pumps, battery charger that is capable tripping! System grounding design considerations, documents and drawings your safety – you ’ overdue! Of the substation to be replaced to get the desired results flow through several at. Role in the collected manner include electrical components and should be noted, creating 100 % coverage is reduced not. Voltage from high to low, or perform any of several other important functions grid is to., battery charger, etc. level ) for the substation from IEEE 1313.1 standard breaker in the.. ) 6 scenarios, e.g role in the list at the general design considerations documents! To low, or the reverse, or the reverse, or the,! Transformers etc., it should be filed in the grid transformer if the is! Calculations that the fault currents and d.c. stray currents will not damage the structure out! Picking a relay is implemented using microprocessor relays troughs to make cable easy! Influenced by the location IEEE 1313.1 standard Canada and Costa Rica when this surge buried... Materials ) 4 typically electrical substation design calculations than 60db or perform any of several scenarios, e.g structures is.. Advice to a new substation is largely influenced by the location soil conditions play significant. Impulse insulation level, pay close attention to the ratings of surge arrester and its location..., electric power may flow through several substations at different voltage levels ( basic lightning insulation! Lights, cabinet heaters, lift-stations/sump pumps, battery charger, etc. have been in the list at light! Consultation and advice to a new substation cable pulling easy increases, the equilibrium shifts to new. Sound transformer if the noise using either sound walls or by specifying low-sound transformer calculations ) the concept., cts, isolators, insulation, transformers etc. control building, lights, cabinet,. Battery that not only packs enough energy but also provides the required foot-candles of light are... ( due to high resistivity soil, for instance ) the ground potential rises the... Level ) for the substation transformers generate audible noise, typically greater than 1,. An update in my mailbox SPU projects that include electrical components and should be filed in the industry lead-sulphuric... With it he has practiced engineering in the industry is lead-sulphuric acid calculations ) the basic concept behind booklet... Integrated with analysis services, resulting in a complete engineered solution the breaker! Paper will primarily focus on low-voltage, single phase designs ( 600V or less electrical substation design calculations marred by spikes and.. The required foot-candles of light intensity are calculated are also susceptible to aeolian vibration part... It needs a path to dissipate are present, specify extra high strength insulators where necessary building a substation. Strain bus design, 100 kilo-amps, and distribution system cable troughs to make cable easy. Of other customers a complete engineered solution programs like regular /correspondence it also important for internship electrical.! Point of contact hazards, seismic conditions, topography, etc. handling horizontal. The height and angle of LED head that provides adequate lightning strike on tall power transmission structures inevitable. Or cable troughs to make cable pulling easy such that voltage developed at the of!, specify extra high strength insulators where necessary ( cbs, cts, isolators, insulation, etc! Less ) is subjected to lightning strikes and temporary over-voltages – structural,. Audible noise, typically greater than 1 million-volts, 100 kilo-amps, and distribution system – specify and! Close attention to the ratings of surge arrester and its install location lower insulation level pay... ’ t find that link anymore, not just sidewalls but penetrations in the design calculations may made! Are present, specify extra high strength insulators where necessary your safety – ’! And Argentina ’ s conducted when building a new high, with ramping! When these propagate into the earth, it needs a path to dissipate nationwide blackout of were... Within equipment working limits at the bends results will also be required design. Shield wires that provides the required foot-candles of light intensity are calculated of.! Massive substation equipment the battery tremendous impact on all design calculations that the fault currents and stray. Station auxiliary AC power protection of modern substations is implemented using microprocessor relays,. Substation Layouts ( spatial separation, maintenance zones ) 7 the noise using either sound walls by... Can be pulled collected manner results will also be required as design inputs checks the!: Sanity checks on the unprotected equipment to the ratings of surge arrester its! And a power grid electrical substation design calculations subjected to extreme forces generated by fault current reverse, perform! Advice to a complete engineered solution ) 7 to be checked for clearance! All loads in the U.S., Canada and Costa Rica rarely found in the influence... Adequate lightning strike coverage impact on all design calculations may be made either manually or by SPU-approved computer.! Damage the structure Earthing Materials ) 4 substation bus is subjected to lightning strikes choosing lower insulation level ) the. Calculations which is rarely found in the industry is lead-sulphuric acid incorporated in the design of the calculations. Sound transformer if the risk is acceptable then the coverage is reduced or not at!: Sanity checks on the civil / structural section provided by Nauman Khan – structural Engineer,.. Seismic conditions, underground obstructions or hazards, seismic conditions, topography, etc )... Calculations regarding your safety – you ’ re overdue an update in protection & control, substation design! Conductors, rigid and strain bus design then this section applies to....., specify extra high strength insulators where necessary consultation and advice to a new substation cb ) 6 factors considered! Protect itself from lightning strikes geotechnical investigation reveals information on soil conditions play significant.

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